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Why Bush Won the Presidential Election of 2004: Incumbency, Ideology, Terrorism, and Turnout
James E. Campbell examines how pre-campaign fundamentals and the campaign affected the 2004 presidential election. Incumbency, high turnout, and concerns that Kerry would not handle the war on terrorism as well as Bush tipped the electorate toward President Bush. An electorate evenly divided in its partisanship, the economy, conflicting views about Iraq, and the debates made the election one of the closest in modern party history.

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