Backward Mapping: Implementation Research and Policy Decisions
Richard F. Elmore describes an approach to designing policy implementation that takes as its point of departure the ultimate outcome of the policy and then "maps backward" to establish what intervening steps are necessary to bring it about. He argues that "backward mapping" is a superior strategy to "forward mapping," which begins planing implementation from the top down.
Implementing Public Policy, Dennis J. Palumbo and Marvin A. Harder, eds. Reviewed by Richard F. Elmore
Prohibitive Policy: Implementing the Federal Endangered Species Act, Steven Lewis Yaffee Reviewed by Richard F. Elmore
The Politics of Policy Implementation, Frank Smallwood and Robert T. Nakamura Reviewed by Richard F. Elmore
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Social Policy and Political Institutions
American Political Institutions after Watergate--A Discussion
DEMETRIOS CARALEY, CHARLES V. HAMILTON, ALPHEUS T. MASON, ROBERT A. McCAUGHEY, NELSON W. POLSBY, JEFFREY L. PRESSMAN, ARTHUR M. SCHLESINGER, JR., GEORGE L. SHERRY, AND TOM WICKER
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PERSPECTIVES ON PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS, 1992–2020
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